The detrimental effects induced by this image was that it narrowed women into the domestic sphere and led many women to lose their own identities.
After conducting a survey of her Smith classmates at a year reunion, Friedan found that most were, as she was, dissatisfied with the limited world of suburban housewives. She left the graduate program after a year to move to New York, where she spent three years as a reporter for the Federated Press.
Friedan says that this change in education arrested girls in their emotional development at a young age, because they never had to face the painful identity crisis and subsequent maturation that comes from dealing with many adult challenges. In the book, Friedan defines women's unhappiness as "the problem that has no name," then she launches into a detailed exploration of what she believes causes this problem.
Indeed, psychological studies at the time indicated that children raised by overly involved mothers often showed extreme passivity and apathy. As president of NOW, she directed campaigns to end sex-classified employment notices, for greater representation of women in government, for child-care centres for working mothers, and for legalized abortion and other reforms.
When they were in love, the men often made these choices for them. It discusses the lives of several housewives from around the United States who were unhappy despite living in material comfort and being married with children. Retrieved November 22, However, one fact is certain: At this reunion, she gave a questionnaire to two hundred of her fellow classmates, and the results confirmed what she had already suspected— many American women were unhappy and did not know why.
She notes that they secured important rights for women, including education, the right to pursue a career, and the right to vote. In the educational sphere, the feminine mystique became a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Next, Friedan introduces another stakeholder in the feminine mystique—perhaps the most powerful one of all. However, Friedan notes that despite the numerous time-saving products and tools at their disposal, many housewives seemed to be remarkably inefficient in their housework, often spending the majority of their day cleaning.
That conditioning was incompatible with the expectation that they would become inactive and disinterested in further enrichment outside the realm of domesticity as adults.
Though these women taught Friedan to respect her mind, they were alone. Though these women taught Friedan to respect her mind, they were alone. Friedan discusses early American feminists and how they fought against the assumption that the proper role of a woman was to be solely a wife and mother.
Friedan notes that many housewives have sought fulfillment in sex, unable to find it in housework and children; Friedan notes that sex cannot fulfill all of a person's needs, and that attempts to make it do so often drive married women to have affairs or drive their husbands away as they become obsessed with sex.
Growing up to ride bicycles and play baseball, studying math, going away to college, and living alone in cities had made them think that they could do what men did. Friedan finds that advertisers continue to benefit enormously from the feminine mystique and, therefore, use it constantly in their work.
A summa cum laude psychology graduate of Smith College inFriedan spent a year on a graduate fellowship to train as a psychologist at the University of California Berkeley. Both groups submitted to the same expectation of marriage, though women who knew less felt more isolated. Although Friedan has written several more controversial works, The Feminine Mystique is the book that made her a household name, and it is still her best-known work.
She hypothesizes that these women are unconsciously stretching out their housework to fill their time. Women had not always identified as housewives. Friedan saw the sexual revolution of the lates and earlys as an opportunity to free both men and women.
Friedan ends her book by promoting education and meaningful work as the ultimate method by which American women can avoid becoming trapped in the feminine mystique, calling for a drastic rethinking of what it means to be feminine, and offering several educational and occupational suggestions.
In their avoidance of becoming like their mothers, these women had repeated the same steps. Through her research— which includes many theories, statistics, and firstperson accounts—Friedan pins the blame on an idealized image of femininity that she calls the feminine mystique.
She had planned to go back to school to get a PhD.
She was transformed by popular media into a domestic goddess—beautiful, feminine, and sublimely happy. The Crisis In Women's Identity.
Social functionalists chose to study elements of a society by looking only at their current social function. Intired of telling other women to empower themselves without following her own advice, she divorced her husband. Active Themes Friedan had won a graduate fellowship to study at the University of California-Berkeley but gave it up to satisfy a boy whom she loved.
Journalist, activist, and co-founder of the National Organization for Women, Betty Friedan was one of the early leaders of the women’s rights movement of the s and s. Her best-selling book, The Feminine Mystique, gave voice to millions of American women’s frustrations with their limited gender roles and helped spark.
InFriedan joined forces with Pauli Murray and Aileen Hernandez to found the National Organization for Women (which remains a leading feminist organization), with Friedan as its.
Betty Friedan (–) wrote The Feminine Mystique, launching the modern Women's Rights Movement, and was the founding president of the National Organization for Women. Born in Illinois, Friedan graduated from Smith College in and studied psychology at the University of California.
When Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique was first published in the United States init exploded into American consciousness. Since its first publication, critics and popular readers have been sharply divided on their assessment of the work.
However, one fact is certain: The Feminine Mystique sparked a national debate about women's. The feminine mystique encouraged women to remain “in the state of sexual larvae,” never achieving maturity through the growing pains that are encouraged in men as a part of their personal evolution.
Women’s awareness of their identity crisis was, in Friedan’s view, the first step in their maturation, and in their urge to abandon biology.
The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan This persuasive argument against the cult of the s housewife was an important motor for second-wave feminism Hermione Hoby.An overview of the womens power in the feminine mystique by betty friedan